Independence Day: After World War II, Britain lost international support. Leading the insurgency in India was out of his control.
New Delhi: Do you know what happened in India 60 days before Independence Day on 15th August 1947? There is a lot of information that our generation does not know. These mainly include India-Pakistan partition, demarcation, riots, Mountbatten plan and unification of states with India.
Britain’s plight after World War II
Let us tell you that in 1946, after the end of World War II, Britain’s Labor Party government treasury was in a state of disrepair. Then he realized that he had neither a mandate nor international support at home. Because of this they were also losing the credibility of the tribal forces to control the increasingly volatile India.
Dispute between the Congress and the Muslim League
On 1 February, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British Government would grant full self-government to British India from 1 June. Then the last viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, pushed back the date of the transfer of power because he felt that the ongoing conflict between the Congress and the Muslim League could lead to the fall of the interim government.
The second anniversary of the surrender of Japan
He chose August 15, the date of the handover, as the second anniversary of Japan’s surrender in World War II. On 3 June 1947, the British government adopted the idea of dividing British India into two states. It further declared that successive governments would be granted independent sovereignty and would have the full right to secede from the British Commonwealth.
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60 days before independence
The British government decided to divide British India on June 3, 1947. The plan of the Indian division is called the ‘Mountbatten Plan’. The boundary line between India and Pakistan was drawn by Sir Cyril’s Rad Radcliffe. Then on 18 July 1947, the Indian Independence Act was passed in the British Parliament. Since then, 552 out of 565 states have voluntarily joined India. Pakistan was formed on 14 August, a day before India’s independence.
During the partition there were many riots in Bengal, Bihar and Punjab. Mahatma Gandhi did not take part in the Independence Day celebrations. Mahatma Gandhi went on a hunger strike in Noakhali, Bengal on 15 August to stop the riots. Millions of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees traveled on foot across the new border prepared after independence. There was widespread bloodshed in the Punjab, where the border divided the Sikh territories into two. Violence also spread in Bengal and Bihar. Violence on both sides of the new border killed between 250,000 and 100,000 people.
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On 14 August, Dr. Raje Rajendra Prasad presided over the meeting of the Constituent Assembly. India’s independence was declared after a meeting of the Constituent Assembly. In this session, Jawaharlal Nehru, declaring the independence of India, gave a speech called Try with Destiny. On 15 August 1947, India did not have its own national anthem. Jan Gana Man composed by Rabindranath Tagore became the national anthem in 1950.